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As long as the baby remains inside the mother's womb, everything seems to be under control. When the time of delivery approaches, the mother only thinks about what that moment will be like and, of course, about what will happen to the baby in the first minutes after delivery. Find out how the baby is adapting to his new environment.
Have you ever stopped to think that the human body is made to perfection? Let's think about the process of pregnancy and how the union of two cells gives rise to the life of a human being. Is not it wonderful?
A little person is formed, who lives inside our womb nine times and who grows and grows every day. It feeds on the placenta, an organ through which we pass the necessary nutrients for its development and growth, and which is also a fundamental part so that the baby receives adequate oxygen to be able to stay alive.
But, What happens once the baby goes outside? There are a series of changes in your body in the new situation. The newborn ceases to depend on our body, in which it has been in special conditions, to move to an environment where it must do the functions of its body alone without the help of mother.
These changes that the baby makes from the intrauterine environment to the extrauterine environment to face the new conditions of life we call neonatal adaptation Different aspects occur in it: the fetal circulation changes to the neonatal one and the function that the placenta had is replaced by its own lungs.
The way it receives oxygen within the maternal uterus is through the blood that circulates in the lung, expanding them and filling them with pulmonary fluid; But when the umbilical cord is cut, the newborn takes its first breath. The oxygen in the environment is responsible for maintaining respiration and the fluid from the lungs is reabsorbed, the lungs inflate and start their work on their own, carrying oxygen into the blood and removing carbon dioxide through exhalation.
On the other hand, there is also the adaptation to external temperature. When it is in our womb, the baby is under a temperature of 37 degrees, which allows him to be warm. After birth, there is no such source of maternal heat, which causes her to lose heat and her skin to turn cold. This occurs in relation to weight, (the lower the weight, the more heat it loses), it also has little fat tissue and thin skin, which makes it more vulnerable to heat loss and rapid cooling.
Another adaptation that occurs is that your liver begins to function, despite being an organ that has not yet completed its maturation. Generally, blood clotting levels are slightly altered, which makes it more sensitive to bleeding, so vitamin K should be administered to prevent bleeding in the newborn.
It must also adapt to changes of the intestine and stomach. Before the placenta fed him, now he must be able to eat through suction to the mother's breast.
Your kidneys are still immature and will continue to develop. Newborns generally urinate in the first 24 hours of life and a curious fact is that many pee while the pediatrician performs the first examinations. Kidneys working! But be careful, you should know that 'after the first urination the baby can be up to 24 hours without peeing', as stated in the report 'Take care of me: guide for parents', carried out by the department of health and consumption of the government of Aragon and collected by the Spanish Association of Pediatrics.
And general adaptations to the environment are presented to recover from the stress of childbirth: changes your heart rate, skin color, breathing, temperature, and response to stimuli.
At birth they cry vigorously and, after about an hour, enter a period of calm and sleep in which their heart rate and respiration decrease. About 4 to 6 hours after this occurs, it stabilizes, so that its adaptation to the external environment is completed satisfactorily.
During this period of time, it is not recommended to bathe the newborn, but to wait 24 hours as recommended by the WHO, since this could alter this adaptation in which there are many important changes to face the new extrauterine environment.
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